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JA0046 A review of literature published in 2010 on analytical methods for pesticides and herbicides is presented here in eight sections, including extraction methods, chromatographic or mass spectrometric techniques, electrochemical techniques, spectropho
来源:Biomedical Chromatography | 作者:Prashant Laxman Kole | 发布时间: 87天前 | 89 次浏览 | 分享到:
This paper reviews the recent developments in bioanalysis sample preparation techniques and gives an update on basic principles, theory, applications and possibilities for automation, and a comparative discussion on the advantages and limitation of each technique. Conventional liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), protein precipitation (PP) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) techniques are now been considered as methods of the past. The last decade has witnessed a rapid development of novel sample preparation techniques in bioanalysis. Developments in SPE techniques such as selective sorbents and in the overall approach to SPE, such as hybrid SPE and molecularly imprinted polymer SPE, have been addressed. Considerable literature has been published in the area of solid-phase micro-extraction and its different versions, e.g. stir bar sorptive extraction, and their application in the development of selective and sensitive bioanalytical methods. Techniques such as dispersive solid-phase extraction, disposable pipette extraction and micro-extraction by packed sorbent offer a variety of extraction phases and provide unique advantages to bioanalytical methods. On-line SPE utilizing column-switching techniques is rapidly gaining acceptance in bioanalytical applications. PP sample preparation techniques such as PP filter plates/tubes offer many advantages like removal of phospholipids and proteins in plasma/serum. Newer approaches to conventional LLE techniques (saltingout LLE) are also covered in this review article.
1 Introduction

Analysis of drug/metabolites/biomarkers (qualitative/ quantitative) in biological matrices such as plasma, serum, whole blood, urine, saliva, tissues, etc., is commonly termed‘bioanalysis’. It is an imperative part of overall drug development process starting with in vitro/in situ testing, pre-clinical studies through to clinical studies. In today’s high-throughput drug discovery industry, bioanalytical laboratories usually operate under pressure to meet the demands and reduce development times (Xu et al., 2007). As the results of the bioanalysis directly affect the clinical decision-making process, bioanalytical processes are part of regulatory filings. Thus to improve and regulate these findings, regulatory agencies worldwide have issued guidelines and procedures to ensure the quality of bioanalytical data (Shah et al., 2000). The last decade has witnessed many technological breakthroughs in analytical methodology and instrumentation. Apart from improved selectivity and sensitivity, modern analytical instrumentation has provided an edge to fast and cost-effective bioanalytical method development and validation. Among these modern analytical techniques, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is considered to be the benchmark for quantitative/qualitative bioanalysis, imparting specificity, sensitivity and speed (Saunders et al., 2009). However, this most selective and sensitive analytical technique also suffers from limitations such as matrix effect, compromised selectivity and a fall in sensitivity of the analyte of interest in the processed biological matrix (Smeraglia et al., 2002)

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